Who were the Mongols?
Mongolian tribes during the Khitan Liao dynasty — Eurasia on the eve of the Mongol invasions, c. Inthe Jin dynasty founded by the Jurchens overthrew the Liao dynasty and attempted to gain control over former Liao territory in Mongolia.
In the s the Jin dynasty rulers, known as the Golden Kings, successfully resisted the Khamag Mongol confederation, ruled at the time by Khabul Khangreat-grandfather of Genghis Khan. The Jin emperors, following a policy of divide and ruleencouraged disputes among the tribes, especially between the Tatars and the Mongols, in order to keep the nomadic tribes distracted by their own battles and thereby away from the Jin.
Khabul's successor was Ambaghai Khanwho was betrayed by the Tatars, handed over to the Jurchen, and executed. The Mongols retaliated by raiding the frontier, resulting in a failed Jurchen counter-attack in The Mongols then resumed attacks on the Tatars to avenge the death of their late khan, opening a long period of active hostilities.
The Jin and Tatar armies defeated the Mongols in It is thought that this resulted in a rapid increase in the number of war horses and other livestock which significantly enhanced Mongol military strength. As a young man he rose very rapidly by working with Toghrul Khan of the Kerait.
The most powerful Mongol leader at the time was Kurtait; he was given the Chinese title "Wang", which means Prince. He then enlarged his Mongol state under himself and his kin. The term Mongol came to be used to refer to all Mongolic speaking tribes under the control of Genghis Khan.
His most powerful allies were his father's friend, Khereid chieftain Wang Khan Toghoril, and Temujin's childhood anda friend Jamukha of the Jadran clan.
This dissatisfaction spread to his generals and other associates, and some Mongols who had previously been allies broke their allegiance.
It was there that he assumed the title of Genghis Khan universal leader instead of one of the old tribal titles such as Gur Khan or Tayang Khan, marking the start of the Mongol Empire. Genghis Khan introduced many innovative ways of organizing his army: The Kheshigthe imperial guardwas founded and divided into day khorchin torghuds and night khevtuul guards.
He proclaimed a new code of law of the empire, Ikh Zasag or Yassa ; later he expanded it to cover much of the everyday life and political affairs of the nomads.
He forbade the selling of women, theft, fighting among the Mongols, and the hunting of animals during the breeding season. In addition to laws regarding family, food, and the army, Genghis also decreed religious freedom and supported domestic and international trade.
He exempted the poor and the clergy from taxation.
He also had to deal with two other powers, Tibet and Qara Khitai. Muslims, including Huiand Jews, were collectively referred to as Huihui.
Muslims were forbidden from Halal or Zabiha butcheringwhile Jews were similarly forbidden from Kashrut or Shehita butchering. Muslims had to slaughter sheep in secret.
Yet you do not eat our food or drink. How can this be right? Because the poor people are upset by this, from now on, Musuluman [Muslim] Huihui and Zhuhu [Jewish] Huihui, no matter who kills [the animal] will eat [it] and must cease slaughtering sheep themselves, and cease the rite of circumcision.
By Rashid al-Dinearly 14th century. According to Mongol tradition, Genghis Khan was buried in a secret location. Inthe great khan personally led his army in the campaign against the Jin dynasty of China. With the assistance of the Song dynasty the Mongols finished off the Jin in The small kingdoms in southern Persia voluntarily accepted Mongol supremacy.
Gojongthe king of Goryeosurrendered but later revolted and massacred Mongol darughachis overseers ; he then moved his imperial court from Gaeseong to Ganghwa Island.
Mongol invasions of IndiaMongol invasions of Koreaand Mongol conquest of Tibet The sack of Suzdal by Batu Khan inminiature from a 16th-century chronicle Meanwhile, in an offensive action against the Song dynastyMongol armies captured Siyang-yang, the Yangtze and Sichuanbut did not secure their control over the conquered areas.
The Song generals were able to recapture Siyang-yang from the Mongols in By the Mongols were encroaching upon Ryazanthe first Kievan Rus' principality they were to attack. After a three-day siege involving fierce fighting, the Mongols captured the city and massacred its inhabitants.
Byall Kievan Rus' had fallen to the Asian invaders except for a few northern cities. Mongol troops under Chormaqan in Persia connecting his invasion of Transcaucasia with the invasion of Batu and Subutai, forced the Georgian and Armenian nobles to surrender as well.This is the timeline of the Mongol Empire from the birth of Temüjin, later Genghis Khan, fall: Temüjin pursues Jamukha and defeats him in several battles.
Eventually Jamukha's allies betray him and turn him over to Temüjin, who kills him by breaking his back. Timeline of Mongolian history; References Bibliography.
Andrade, Tonio. The Mongol empire was the largest contiguous land empire in history. In , at the height of the empire, the territory spanned from the Pacific Ocean to Central Europe. Genghis Khan lead the. Two years after Chingis' death, Ogedei was officially proclaimed as the ruler of the Mongol Empire.
Ogedei took the title of Khakhan ("Great Khan" or "Khan of Khans"), a title used by rulers of the greatest steppe Empires. The Mongols ended the short-lived Kwarezmian Empire, and brought the fall of the Abbasid Caliph and dealt a great blow. 49) that the last part of the Western Roman Empire to fall to barbarian assault was North Wales, which was conquered by Edward I's English hordes in a point made earlier by Campbell, James, The Anglo-Saxons (Oxford, ), p.
The Rise and Fall of The Mongol Empire. Once Genghis Khan was made ruler of all Mongols in , the Mongols quickly grew to become one of the largest empires in world history. The Mongol Empire (Mongolian: Mongolyn Ezent Güren The fall of the Mongol Empire in the 14th century led to the collapse of the political, cultural, and economic unity along the Silk Road.
Turkic tribes seized the western .