General characteristics[ edit ] Y. Genome[ edit ] The complete genomic sequence is available for two of the three subspecies of Y. The chromosome of strain KIM is 4, base pairs long; the chromosome of strain CO92 is 4, base pairs long. Among other things, these virulence factors are required for bacterial adhesion and injection of proteins into the host cell, invasion of bacteria in the host cell via a type-III secretion systemand acquisition and binding of iron harvested from red blood cells by siderophores.
Apr 2, - Genoa, and Sicily 4, 8. The disease spread slowly Humans can become infected after being bitten by fleas that have fed on infected rodents. In humans, the disease usually occurs in the form of bubonic plague.
In rare cases, the infection spreads to the lungs via the bloodstream and causes secondary pneumonic plague. Person-to-person transmission has been described for pneumonic plague but is rare in primary bubonic plague.
Bubonic plague can usually be treated successfully with antibiotics; however, pneumonic plague develops rapidly and carries a high fatality rate despite immediate treatment with antibiotics. Plague is also recognized as a potential agent of bioterrorism. It has been used, or considered for use, as a biologic weapon on several occasions.
It is important for the medical community to be familiar with the epidemiology, diagnosis, and symptoms of plague so it can deliver an appropriate and calm response should the unthinkable happen. I n recent years, the fear about terrorist attacks with biological weapons has grown.
This third article in a series of papers addressing issues related to biological warfare and bioterrorism gives a concise overview of the role that plague has played in the past and present as a biological weapon.
As outlined in the historical review of biological warfare 1, 2plague has been one of the most devastating epidemic diseases to mankind, second only to smallpox.
Given the presence and availability of plague around the world, the capacity for mass production and aerosol dissemination, the high fatality rate of pneumonic plague, and the potential for rapid secondary spread, the potential use of plague as a biological weapon is of great concern.
A review of this bibliography led to subsequent identification of relevant references published prior to The consensus statement of the Working Group on Civilian Biodefense regarding plague was the basis of the final risk assessment and evaluation of the current threat 3.
The final draft published in May provides a good basis for the development of strategies to counteract the potential threat posed by bioterrorism and the use of plague in particular. However, the conclusions and recommendations need to be regularly reassessed as new information and research become available.
Naturally, these historic events are now seen retrospectively in light of concepts that are now considered proven. Because of the complexity of the historic background of the disease, this article can provide only a brief summary of the most important historic events.
The oldest account of plague is probably given in the Bible, in the First Book of Samuel. This book recounts that in approximately BC, the Philistines people hostile to the Israelites in ancient Palestinewho had stolen the Ark of the Covenant from the Israelites, were afflicted with a dreadful disease.
This disease, which probably was an epidemic of bubonic plague, had afflicted the people in the city of Ashdod, presently in Israel. Another report of possible plague is given by Rufus of Ephesus in the first century AD.
He describes a plague epidemic in the countries of Libya, Syria, and Egypt. In his account, additional earlier outbreaks of plague are noted, dating back to BC.
However, the original records are now lost 4, 5. More recent literature raises doubts about the true nature of these epidemics. Generally, it is very difficult and in some cases even impossible to render a clear diagnosis from the descriptions of ancient authors.
Smallpox, typhus, and other infectious diseases could have accounted for some of the symptoms.
The final states of some of these diseases are quite similar, making it even more difficult to differentiate them retrospectively based on scarce ancient texts. The plague in Naples. Courtesy of the National Library of Medicine.
Procopius of Caesarea gives a detailed account of the outbreak of bubonic plague in Constantinople in his book De Bello Persico.
This great first pandemic was followed by many smaller outbreaks throughout the following two centuries, thus bridging the gap between the first and second great pandemics of plague. In contrast to the first pandemic, the second or great medieval plague pandemic is well described by many authors and documents 5 Figure 1.
This second pandemic, also known as the Black Death or Great Pestilence, appeared in in China and then spread westward along the great trade routes in Tauris on the Black Sea and eventually to Constantinople. The disease spread slowly and inevitably from village to village by infected rats and humans, or more quickly from country to country by ships, and eventually killed 20 to 30 million people in Europe: Despite the high mortality rate of the Black Death pandemic, the most devastating effects resulted from smaller, recurrent outbreaks that continued well into the 18th century, although with a lower frequency than in the 14th and 15th centuries.
Between the years andonly a few decades saw no plague epidemic. In most cases the epidemics originated from residual foci. In some other cases complete reintroduction of the disease occurred. In continental Europe, three major plague corridors were identified along which the plague epidemics expanded during the 16th to 18th centuries The first route linked the Low Countries with the Rhineland; the second ran parallel to the Weser and Elbe rivers linking northwestern Germany to Bohemia.
The third important corridor was along the coastal region of the Baltic Sea and the North Sea.Description: My paper about Plague use it free but with citation or link thank you. Bubo is about 70 % contained in the inguinal and femoral regions.1 Bubonic Plague This type of plague is that most cases that is 3/4 patients with bubonic plague.
septicemia. 2. causing pneumonia or secondary could also develop into meningitis. chills The Making of a Pandemic: Bubonic Plague in the 14th Century JAMES T. EASTMAN, M.D., septicemia, and pneumopathic effects. The incidence and virulence of this disease has diminished over the years, being endophthalmitis, meningitis, and pneumonia.
Without immediate treatment, the mortality is almost %; with treatment, it can still. Numerous case descriptions may be reminiscent of bubonic plague, a disease possibly responsible for the Great Plague of Athens (– BC), 7 or rickettsioses (relapsing fevers), although any remarks on the potential relationship of the latter with arthropod bites are suspiciously (for an astute observer like Hippocrates) absent.
Chapter Plague. STUDY. PLAY. Plague.
bubonic plague: typically started by the bite by a flea infected with Y. pestis. The bite inoculates thousands of Y. pestis cells deep into the skin; the bacteria migrate to lymph nodes where they multiply, destroy lymph node and escape into bloodstream, where they continue reproducing (septicemia.
Bubonic and Pneumonic plague are transmitted by rodents carrying which arthropods? Septicemia is presence of microbes in blood. Pneumococcal Pneumonia caused by step and effects mostly adults. Legionellosis is a bacteria associated with AC.
Walking Pneumonia. It causes the disease plague, which takes three main forms: pneumonic, septicemic, and bubonic plagues. All three forms were responsible for a number of high-mortality epidemics throughout human history, including: the Plague (Yersinia Pestis).