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Our survey methodology in detail Sampling The typical Pew Research Center national survey selects a random digit sample of both landline and cellphone numbers in all 50 U. The design of the landline sample ensures representation of both listed and unlisted numbers including those not yet listed by using random digit dialing.
This method uses random generation of the last two digits of telephone numbers selected on the basis of the area code, telephone exchange and bank number. A bank is defined as contiguous telephone numbers, for example to The telephone exchanges are selected to be proportionally stratified by county and by telephone exchange within the county.
The cellphone sample is drawn through systematic sampling from dedicated wireless banks of contiguous numbers and shared service banks with no directory-listed landline numbers to ensure that the cellphone sample does not include banks that are also included in the landline sample.
The sample is designed to be representative both geographically and by large and small wireless carriers also see cellphones for more information.
Both the landline and cell samples are released for interviewing in replicates, which are small random samples of each larger sample.
Using replicates to control the release of telephone numbers ensures that the complete call procedures are followed for all numbers dialed. The use of replicates also improves the overall representativeness of the survey by helping to ensure that the regional distribution of numbers called is appropriate.
This method of selecting respondents within each household improves participation among young people who are often more difficult to interview than older people because of their lifestyles. Unlike a landline phone, a cellphone is assumed in Pew Research Center polls to be a personal device.
Interviewers ask if the person who answers the cellphone is 18 years of age or older to determine if the person is eligible to complete the survey also see cellphone surveys for more information. This means that, for those in the cell sample, no effort is made to give other household members a chance to be interviewed.
Although some people share cellphones, it is still uncertain whether the benefits of sampling among the users of a shared cellphone outweigh the disadvantages.
Sampling error results from collecting data from some, rather than all, members of the population.
For each of our surveys, we report a margin of sampling error for the total sample and usually for key subgroups analyzed in the report e. For example, the sampling error for a typical Pew Research Center national survey of 1, completed interviews is plus or minus 2.
This means that in 95 out of every samples of the same size and type, the results we obtain would vary by no more than plus or minus 2. Thus, the chances are very high 95 out of that any sample we draw will be within 3 points of the true population value.
The sampling errors we report also take into account the effect of weighting. Also see probability and non-probability sampling for more information. Nonresponse At least seven attempts are made to complete an interview at every sampled telephone number.
The calls are staggered over times of day and days of the week including at least one daytime call to maximize the chances of making contact with a potential respondent. Interviewing is also spread as evenly as possible across the field period.
The response rate is the percentage of known or assumed residential households for which a completed interview was obtained.Writing a Short Literature Review William Ashton, Ph.D. York College, CUNY perceptions of dangerousness and social distance in a telephone survey.
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