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List of schools for people on the autistic spectrum Educational interventions attempt to help children not only to learn academic subjects and gain traditional readiness skills, but also to improve functional communication and spontaneity, enhance social skills such as joint attentiongain cognitive skills such as symbolic play, reduce disruptive behavior, and generalize learned skills by applying them to new situations.
Several model programs have been developed, which in practice often overlap and share many features, including: Several educational intervention methods are available, as discussed below.
They can take place at home, at school, or at a center devoted to autism treatment; they can be done by parents, teachers, speech and language therapistsand occupational therapists. Applied behavior analysis Applied behavior analysis ABA is the applied research field of the science of behavior analysisand it underpins a wide range of techniques used to treat autism and many other behaviors and diagnoses,  including those who are patients in rehab or who need to have their behavior changed.
ABA-based interventions focus on teaching tasks one-on-one using the behaviorist principles of stimulus, response and reward,  and on reliable measurement and objective evaluation of observed behavior. In functional assessment, a common technique, a teacher formulates a clear description of a problem behavior, identifies antecedents, consequences, and other environmental factors that influence and maintain the behavior, develops hypotheses about what occasions and maintains the behavior, and collects observations to support the hypotheses.
Pivotal response training[ edit ] Main article: Instead of individual behaviors, it targets pivotal areas of a child's development, such as motivation, responsivity to multiple cues, self-management, and social initiations; it aims for widespread improvements in areas that are not specifically targeted.
The child determines activities and objects that will be used in a PRT exchange. Intended attempts at the target behavior are rewarded with a natural reinforcer: The practice is controversial  and has not been popular or used elsewhere since the s.
Speech therapy and Picture exchange communication system The inability to communicate, verbally or non-verbally, is a core deficit in autism. Children with autism are often engaged in repetitive activity or other behaviors because they cannot convey their intent any other way.
They do not know how to communicate their ideas to caregivers or others. Helping a child with autism learn to communicate their needs and ideas is absolutely core to any intervention.
Communication can either be verbal or non-verbal. Children with autism require intensive intervention to learn how to communicate their intent.
Communication interventions fall into two major categories. First, many autistic children do not speak, or have little speech, or have difficulties in effective use of language. AAC methods do not appear to impede speech and may result in modest gains.
A wide range of intervention approaches is available, including modeling and reinforcement, adult and peer mediation strategies, peer tutoring, social games and stories, self-management, pivotal response therapyvideo modelingdirect instruction, visual cuing, Circle of Friends and social-skills groups.
It was designed to help families, educators and therapists work cooperatively together to maximize progress in supporting the child. The acronym refers to the focus on: SC — social communication — the development of functional communication and emotional expression.
ER — emotional regulation — the development of well-regulated emotions and ability to cope with stress. TS — transactional support — the implementation of supports to help families, educators and therapists respond to children's needs, adapt the environment and provide tools to enhance learning.
Computer-assisted therapy for reasoning about communicative actions[ edit ] Many remediation strategies have not taken into account that people with autism suffer from difficulties in learning social rules from examples. Computer-assisted autism therapy has been proposed to teach not simply via examples but to teach the rule along with it.
Learning starts from the basic concepts of knowledge and intention and proceeds to more complex communicative actions such as explaining, agreeing, and pretending. Relationship based, developmental models[ edit ] Relationship based models give importance to the relationships that help children reach and master early developmental milestones.
These are often missed or not mastered in children with ASD. Examples of these early milestones are engagement and interest in the world, intimacy with a caregiver, intentionality of action. Relationship Development Intervention[ edit ] Main article:Examples of Materials That Can Be Adapted For Therapy a collection of resources by Judith Maginnis Kuster.
The following is one section of Judith Kuster's Net Connections for Communication Disorders and Sciences (attheheels.com).The internet is FULL of materials that can be adapted to speechlanguage therapy.
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