Genetics essay competition

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Genetics essay competition

Chinese marriage Confucius described marriage as "the union of two surnames, in friendship and in love". This would have the effect of eliminating parallel-cousin marriage as an option, but would leave cross-cousin marriage acceptable. However, enforcement proved difficult and by the subsequent Qing Dynasty, the former laws had been restored.

There are only two clans there Which have intermarried for many generations. In Chinese culture, these patrilineal ties are most important in determining the closeness of a relation. Cousin marriage in the Middle East Cousin marriage has been allowed throughout the Middle East for all recorded history.

Here the girl is not forced to marry her male cousin, but she cannot marry another unless he gives consent. When the marriage procession progressed with the bride toward the house of the bridegroom, the male cousin rushed forward, snatched away the girl, and forced her into his own house.

This was regarded by all as a lawful marriage.

Evolution: Darwin: In the Name of Darwin

Cousin marriage rates were highest among women,[ clarification needed ] Genetics essay competition families, and older well-established families.

One source from the s states that cousin marriage was less common in Cairo than in other areas. Raphael Patai, however, reported that this custom loosened in the years preceding his study. Research among Arabs and worldwide has indicated that consanguinity could have an effect on some reproductive health parameters such as postnatal mortality and rates of congenital malformations.

He has shown that while a clear functional connection exists between Islam and FBD marriage, the prescription to marry a FBD does not appear to be sufficient to persuade people to actually marry thus, even if the marriage brings with it economic advantages.

According to Korotayev, a systematic acceptance of parallel-cousin marriage took place when Islamization occurred together with Arabization. Muslim Hausa practice cousin marriage preferentially, and polygyny is allowed if the husband can support multiple wives.

These included not only cousin marriages, but also uncle-niece unions. Reportedly, it is a custom that in such marriages at least one spouse must be a relative, and generally such spouses were the preferred or favorite wives in the marriage and gave birth to more children.

However, this was not a general study of Yoruba, but only of highly polygynous Yoruba residing in Oka Akoko. Igbo are almost entirely Christian, having converted heavily under colonialism. Only Austria, Hungary, and Spain banned cousin marriage throughout the 19th century, with dispensations being available from the government in the last two countries.

The writings of Scottish deputy commissioner for lunacy Arthur Mitchell claiming that cousin marriage had injurious effects on offspring were largely contradicted by researchers such as Alan Huth and George Darwin.

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Later studies by George Darwin found results that resemble those estimated today. When a question about cousin marriage was eventually considered in for the census, according to George Darwin, it was rejected on the grounds that the idle curiosity of philosophers was not to be satisfied.

Anthropologist Jack Goody said that cousin marriage was a typical pattern in Rome, based on the marriage of four children of Emperor Constantine to their first cousins and on writings by Plutarch and Livy indicating the proscription of cousin marriage in the early Republic.

Genetics essay competition

Such marriages carried no social stigma in the late Republic and early Empire. Shaw and Saller propose in their thesis of low cousin marriage rates that as families from different regions were incorporated into the imperial Roman nobility, exogamy was necessary to accommodate them and to avoid destabilizing the Roman social structure.

Their data from tombstones further indicate that in most of the western empire, parallel-cousin marriages were not widely practiced among commoners, either. Jack Goody claimed that early Christian marriage rules forced a marked change from earlier norms to deny heirs to the wealthy and thus to increase the chance that those with wealth would will their property to the Church.

Shaw and Saller, however, believe that the estates of aristocrats without heirs had previously been claimed by the emperor, and that the Church merely replaced the emperor.

Their view is that the Christian injunctions against cousin marriage were due more to ideology than to any conscious desire to acquire wealth. Marcus Aurelius also married his maternal first cousin Faustina the Youngerand they had 13 children.

Cousin marriage was more frequent in Ancient Greeceand marriages between uncle and niece were also permitted there. From the seventh century, the Irish Church only recognized four degrees of prohibited kinshipand civil law fewer.The American Society of Human Genetics (ASHG) invites you to participate in the 10th Annual DNA Day Essay Contest!

The contest is open to students in grades The contest aims to challenge students to examine, question, and reflect on important concepts in genetics. An electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) or mobility shift electrophoresis, also referred as a gel shift assay, gel mobility shift assay, band shift assay, or gel retardation assay, is a common affinity electrophoresis technique used to study protein–DNA or protein–RNA interactions.

This procedure can determine if a protein or mixture. Competition Essays: Over , Competition Essays, Competition Term Papers, Competition Research Paper, Book Reports.

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