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Lath Traditionally, plaster was laid onto laths, rather than plasterboard as is more commonplace nowadays. Wooden laths are narrow strips of straight-grained wood depending on availability of species in lengths of from two to four or five feet to suit the distances at which the timbers of a floor or partition are set.
The thicker laths should be used in ceilings, to stand the extra strain sometimes they were doubled for extra strengthand the thinner variety in vertical work such as partitions, except where the latter will be subjected to rough usage, in which case thicker laths become necessary.
Laths were formerly all made by hand. Most are now made by machinery and are known as sawn laths, those made by hand being called rent or riven laths. Rent laths give the best results, as they split in a line with the grain of the wood, and are stronger and not so liable to twist as machine-made laths, some of the fibers of which are usually cut in the process of sawing.
Laths must be nailed so as to break joint in bays three or four feet wide with ends butted one against the other. By breaking the joints of the lathing in this way, the tendency for the plaster to crack along the line of joints is diminished and a better key is obtained.
Every lath should be nailed at each end and wherever it crosses a joist or stud. This is done to preserve a good key for the plaster. Walls liable to damp are sometimes battened and lathed to form an air cavity between the damp wall and the plastering. Lathing in metal, either in wire or in the form of perforated galvanised sheets, is now extensively used on account of its fireproof and lasting quality.
There are many kinds of this material in different designs, the best known in England being the Jhilmil, the Bostwick, Lathing, and Expanded Metal lathing.
The two last-named are also widely used in America. Lathing nails are usually of iron, cut, wrought or cast, and in the better class of work they are galvanized to prevent rusting.
Zinc nails are sometimes used, but are costly. Lime mortar Lime plastering is composed of lime, sand, hair and water in proportions varying according to the nature of the work to be done.
The lime mortar principally used for internal plastering is that calcined from chalkoyster shells or other nearly pure limestoneand is known as fat, pure, chalk or rich lime. Hydraulic limes are also used by the plasterer, but chiefly for external work.
Perfect slaking of the calcined lime before being used is very important as, if used in a partially slaked condition, it will "blow" when in position and blister the work. Lime should therefore be run as soon as the building is begun, and at least three weeks should elapse between the operation of running the lime and its use.
Cheefon[ edit ] Hair is used in plaster as a binding medium, and gives tenacity to the material.
Traditionally horsehair was the most commonly used binder, as it was easily available before the development of the motor-car. Hair functions in much the same way as the strands in fiberglass resin, by controlling and containing any small cracks within the mortar while it dries or when it is subject to flexing.
Ox -hair, which is sold in three qualities, is now the kind usually specified; but horsehair, which is shorter, is sometimes substituted or mixed with the ox-hair in the lower qualities.
Good hair should be long In the UK cow and horse hair of short and long lengths is usedand left greasey lanolin grease because this protects against some degradation when introduced into the very high alkaline plaster. In America, goats ' hair is frequently used, though it is not so strong as ox-hair.
Hair reinforcement in lime plaster is common and many types of hair and other organic fibres can be found in historic plasters . However, organic material in lime will degrade in damp environments particularly on damp external renders.
Two barrels of mortar were made up of equal proportions of lime and sand, one containing the usual quantity of goats' hair, and the other Manila fiber.
After remaining in a dry cellar for nine months the barrels were opened. It was found that the hair had been almost entirely eaten away by the action of the lime, and the mortar consequently broke up and crumbled quite easily. The mortar containing the Manila hemp, on the other hand, showed great cohesion, and required some effort to pull it apart, the hemp fiber being undamaged.
In England this fine white sand is procured chiefly from Leighton Buzzard; also in England many traditional plasters had crushed chalk as the aggreate, this made a very flexible plaster suitable for timber frame buildings. For external work Portland cement is undoubtedly the best material on account of its strength, durability, and weather resisting external properties, but not on historic structures that are required to flex and breathe; for this, lime without cement is used.
Sawdust will enable mortar to stand the effects of frost and rough weather. It is useful sometimes for heavy cornices and similar work, as it renders the material light and strong. The sawdust should be used dry. The sawdust is used to bind the mix sometimes to make it go further.
Stucco Stucco is a term loosely applied to nearly all kinds of external plastering, whether composed of lime or of cement. At the present time it has fallen into disfavor, but in the early part of the 19th century a great deal of this work was done.Swimming slowly, enjoying the feeling of the water hitting my face, ah!
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The Online Writing Lab (OWL) at Purdue University houses writing resources and instructional material, and we provide these as a free service of the Writing Lab at Purdue. The Common Application had modest beginnings in the s when a few colleges and universities decided to make the application process easier for applicants by allowing them to create one application, photocopy it, and then mail it to multiple schools. Plasterwork refers to construction or ornamentation done with plaster, such as a layer of plaster on an interior or exterior wall structure, or plaster decorative moldings on ceilings or walls. This is also sometimes called attheheels.com process of creating plasterwork, called plastering or rendering, has been used in building construction for centuries.
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