Launched in Octoberwe began with the mission of helping students create perfect citations in a fraction of the time. Without even realizing it, you do it already in your everyday life in little ways.
Although you should use these citation formats in this and other biology courses, specific formats vary considerably for individual journals. If you are trying to publish a paper in a specific journal, you will be required to follow the format of that journal. That system will not be presented here, but you should expect to encounter it in your reading of the literature.
A complete listing of citation formats for published materials may be found in Huth et al Citing References in the Body Intro and Discussion of the Paper Throughout the body of your paper primarily the Intro and Discussionwhenever you refer to outside sources of information, you must cite the sources from which you drew information.
The simplest way to do this is to parenthetically give the author's last name and the year of publication, e. Provide a reference to the work as soon as possible after giving the information.
Top of Page Standard Text Citation Formats There are exceptions among the various journals, but generally, in biological journals, the most frequent types of citations are shown in the following examples in red: Click and Clack demonstrated that mice treated with synthetic estrogen analogs react similarly.
The reduction in phase three courtship behavior may also be linked to nutritional status Anon. Typically, only the last name of the author s and the year of publication are given,e. Your Literature Cited section will contain the complete reference, and the reader can look it up there.
Notice that the reference to the book has a page number Gumwad This is to facilitate a reader's finding the reference in a long publication such as a book not done for journal articles. The paper by Bugjuice is short, and if readers want to find the referenced information, they would not have as much trouble.
For two author papers, give both authors' last names e. Articles with more than two authors are cited by the first authors last name followed "and others" or "et al.
When a book, paper, or article has no identifiable author, cite it as Anon. If you want reference a paper found in another article, do so as follows: Driblickin Oobleck A string of citations should be separated by semicolons, e.
Finally, you should note the placement of the period AFTER the parenthetical citation - the citation, too, is part of a sentence,e. Theses and dissertatons should be cited as follows: A study of hormonal regulation of body temperature and consequences for reproductive success in the common house mouse Mus musculus in Nome, Alaska.
Masters Thesis, University of Alaska, Anchorage. WWW citation should be done with caution since so much is posted without peer review. When necessary, report the complete URL in the text including the site author's name: Ohio State University Library has a good webpage for citing web sources:Below, we have listed examples in the new MLA style for some of the most common formats.
To find out more about the changes and to view a more extensive list of examples, please see the excellent MLA Formatting and Style Guide, published by Purdue University's Online Writing Lab (OWL).
This free online tool provides all users with the opportunity to automatically generate citations. It can serve as the apa, mla, ama citation generator, as well as the Chicago, Harvard citation generator. Citations within the text of your paper refer the reader to an alphabetical reference list at the end of the paper.
APA format uses the author-date method of citation. The Complete Guide to MLA & Citations What You’ll Find on This Guide: This page provides an in-depth overview of MLA format.
It includes information related to MLA citations, plagiarism, proper formatting for in-text and regular citations, and examples of citations for many different types of sources.
Number in-text references. In the citation-sequence system, sources are numbered by order of reference so that the first reference cited in the paper is 1, Examples of end references Book.
References for books follow the order Author(s). Title. Edition. Place of publication: publisher; date. Extent. If the title is not included in the paper, use a brief reference (shortened title) in the parenthetical citation.
Examples: In The Lexus and the Olive Tree, Thomas L. Friedman noted, "No two countries that both had McDonald's had fought a war against each other since each got its McDonald's" ().