The Education Technology Value Chain: The sometimes-impressive facade of computers gracing desktops in many schools obscures a more sobering reality that educational technology is often so unreliable its utility to students and teachers is negated. Consequently, opportunities for significant productivity gains from educational technology including pedagogical advances, closing the achievement gap and facilitating K reforms have gone unrealized. Nevertheless, education technology appears poised to make major contributions to K education.
The Education Technology Value Chain: The sometimes-impressive facade of computers gracing desktops in many schools obscures a more sobering reality that educational technology is often so unreliable its utility to students and teachers is negated. Consequently, opportunities for significant productivity gains from educational technology including pedagogical advances, closing the achievement gap and facilitating K reforms have gone unrealized.
Nevertheless, education technology appears poised to make major contributions to K education. Moreover, a growing body of evidence now suggests that when systematically implemented, educational technology can support a wide range of educational innovations, including flipped classrooms, peer-to-peer teaching, and customized learning.
The Education Technology Challenge However, the prolonged implementation phase of K educational technology is not exceptional when compared with other transformative technologies, such as steam power, electricity and earlier generations of computing.
Steam power took approximately 80 years from Watts's first steam engine to realize significant gains in manufacturing productivity Crafts, In a similar manner, electric power took approximately 40 years before electric dynamo technology yielded dramatic increases in manufacturing productivity David, More recently, the failure to identify productivity gains from the massive investments in computing technology by American businesses was labeled a as "productivity paradox," a perception that changed dramatically after the mid s.
Why did it take so long to realize productivity gains from these different transformative technologies? David concluded that lags in productivity were owing to: The initial unprofitability of replacing existing functioning technology; The need to identify and integrate complementary technical components; and The need to integrate the new technology into organizational processes David, Today, challenges to the successful introduction of educational technology into the K system are similar to those faced by previous transformative technologies because success requires implementation of an entire system of technological and organizational innovation, not just a single stand-alone invention.
Given the significant opportunities offered by educational technology, a major policy question facing the United States today is how to optimize its potential in the quickest and fairest way possible for the entire K system. To examine this challenge, we have adopted a technology value chain framework.
The framework is designed to: The framework presented here takes an institutional level perspective of the provision of educational technology to K schools and we examine how technological, organizational, administrative and even demographic trends can affect the delivery of educational technology services to K schools.
Components 1 through 4 focus the potential of today's rapidly evolving cloud technology infrastructure that can support the centralized delivery of educational technology services. Components 5 through 7 concern the adoption and integration of education technologies into K organizations.
Component 5 focuses on the educational technology assessment and procurement process; Component 6 concerns the adoption of educational technology by students and teachers, and component 7 focuses on the integration of educational technology into K curricula and initiatives.
Finally, component 8 focuses the assessment and feedback systems necessary to evaluate the impact of K education technology Manzi, Today, there is a growing consensus among information technologists that Cloud computing can support K educational technology, and at lower costs Marston et al.
Cloud computing services provide on-demand access to shared computing resources software application services. Economies of scale delivered by cloud computing services enable them to provide expert technical talent that is generally unavailable to smaller organizations like K school systems.
In addition, cloud services, along with appropriate software and service licensing agreements, provide organizations with much greater flexibility to scale-up or scale-down application services based on customer demand and experience.
Cloud delivered educational applications can also significantly reduce end-user i.
Cloud service models depend on the ability of individuals to access the Internet. National surveys find continued gaps in access to the Internet by geographic location, ethnicity, race and socioeconomic status November; NTIA,February. Various federal initiatives aimed at underserved groups have had varying degrees of success to date November; NTIA,Februaryand more recently, the ConnectED initiative was established to bring Internet connectivity and high-speed wireless access to virtually all K schools NTIA, July 1, In addition to providing technology applications, access to reliable end user computing devices Component 4 has posed a significant impediment to implementing educational technology.
Dramatic decreases in the cost of end-user computers along with web browser technology that provides a common interface across different computers devices has greatly reduced the financial burden of this component Credit Suisse data.
Moreover, Gartner May, projects that by at least 70 percent of K school districts will be engaged in some form of a 1-to-1 computing initiative for students, whether focused on particular grade levels or districtwide.
Educational Technology Assessment and Procurement: Negotiating education technology licensing and service agreements requires flexibility to field test, adopt and, if desired, discontinue particular applications or services.
To navigate this complex landscape market influence matters.Implementing, maintaining and managing computer technology has been extremely difficult for most K educational systems. The sometimes-impressive facade of computers gracing desktops in many schools obscures a more sobering reality that educational technology is often so unreliable its utility to.
Page 2 \ Women in STEM in Australia ABOUT PROFESSIONALS AUSTRALIA Professionals Australia is an organisation registered under the Fair Work Act representing over 25, professionals including professional engineers, scientists and information attheheels.com Implementing Web technologies in higher education: A collective case study Of the eight projects undertaken as part of the project, six provided sufficient data to be included in the analysis presented in this paper, and are summarised in S.
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YuenEducational use of social networking technology in higher education. Teaching in Higher attheheels.com · disciplines of science, technology, engineering and mathematics CHRISTINE V. McDONALD* and computer science and engineering at the professional level (Sullivan & Bers, ). Importantly, although gender disparity is evident in the Design and Technology Education: An International attheheels.com · Computer Coursework and Experience of College-Bound c Most teachers have not had the education or training to use technology effectively in their teaching.
c Only 15 percent of U.S. teachers reported having at least nine hours of training in education technology in attheheels.com · papers in refereed journals A method of requirements change analysis Requirements Engineering 14/7/ pp (Jayatilleke S., Lai R. and Reed K.) COCOMO-BASED Effort Estimation in Incremental Software Development Software Quality attheheels.com