You can help by adding to it. September Transpacific trade[ edit ] Canton Guangzhou was the trade center of China in that period. California belonged to Mexico untiland historians have asserted that a small number of Chinese had already settled there by the midth century.
Nearly all of the early immigrants were young males with low educational levels from six districts in Guangdong Province. Chinese immigrants were particularly instrumental in building railroads in the American west, and as Chinese laborers grew successful in the United States, a number of them became entrepreneurs in their own right.
As the numbers of Chinese laborers increased, so did the strength of anti-Chinese attitude among other workers in the American economy.
This finally resulted in legislation that aimed to limit future immigration of Chinese workers to the United States, and threatened to sour diplomatic relations between the United States and China; The Chinese Exclusion Act  The Chinese came to California in large numbers during the California Gold Rush, with 40, being recorded as arriving from —, and again in the s, when the Central Pacific Railroad recruited large labor gangs, many on five-year contracts, to build its portion of the Transcontinental Railroad.
American objections to Chinese immigration took many forms, and generally stemmed from economic and cultural tensions, as well as ethnic discrimination. Most Chinese laborers who came to the United States did so in order to send money back to China to support their families there. At the same time, they also had to repay loans to the Chinese merchants who paid their passage to America.
These financial pressures left them little choice but to work for whatever wages they could. Non-Chinese laborers often required much higher wages to support their wives and children in the United States, and also generally had a stronger political standing to bargain for higher wages.
Therefore, many of the non-Chinese workers in the United States came to resent the Chinese laborers, who might squeeze them out of their jobs. Furthermore, as with most immigrant communities, many Chinese settled in their own neighborhoods, and tales spread of Chinatowns as places where large numbers of Chinese men congregated to visit prostitutes, smoke opium, or gamble.
Some advocates of anti-Chinese legislation therefore argued that admitting Chinese into the United States lowered the cultural and moral standards of American society. Others used a more overtly racist argument for limiting immigration from East Asia, and expressed concern about the integrity of American racial composition.
Because anti-Chinese discrimination and efforts to stop Chinese immigration violated the Burlingame-Seward Treaty with China, the federal government was able to negate much of this legislation.
In the decade64, were recorded as arriving, followed byin and 61, in Inadvocates of immigration restriction succeeded in introducing and passing legislation in Congress to limit the number of Chinese arriving to fifteen per ship or vessel.
Republican President Rutherford B.
Hayes vetoed the bill because it violated U. Nevertheless, it was still an important victory for advocates of exclusion. Democrats, led by supporters in the West, advocated for all-out exclusion of Chinese immigrants.
Although Republicans were largely sympathetic to western concerns, they were committed to a platform of free immigration.
In order to placate the western states without offending China, President Hayes sought a revision of the Burlingame-Seward Treaty Burlingame Treaty in which China agreed to limit immigration to the United States.
Angell to negotiate a new treaty with China. The resulting Angell Treaty permitted the United States to restrict, but not completely prohibit, Chinese immigration.
InCongress passed the Chinese Exclusion Act, which, per the terms of the Angell Treaty, suspended the immigration of Chinese laborers skilled or unskilled for a period of 10 years. The Act also required every Chinese person traveling in or out of the country to carry a certificate identifying his or her status as a laborer, scholar, diplomat, or merchant.
The Act was the first in American history to place broad restrictions on immigration. The domestic factors ultimately trumped international concerns.
InCongress took exclusion even further and passed the Scott Act, which made reentry to the United States after a visit to China impossible, even for long-term legal residents. The Chinese Government considered this act a direct insult, but was unable to prevent its passage.
InCongress voted to renew exclusion for ten years in the Geary Act, and inthe prohibition was expanded to cover Hawaii and the Philippines, all over strong objections from the Chinese Government and people. Congress later extended the Exclusion Act indefinitely.Chinese Immigration, Exclusion and the Chinese-American Experience by Deborah Samuel Rationale.
I teach in an urban city school system, and my students are predominately African Americans. Is the United States “a nation of immigrants,” a “land of opportunity,” and refuge for the world’s persecuted and poor?
Is the country made stronger by its ability to welcome and absorb people from around the world? In , half of Chinese-born people living in the United States resided in the states of California and New York.  The Chinese American experience has been documented at the Museum of Chinese in America in Manhattan's Chinatown since Find U.S.
Department of State programs for U.S. and non-U.S. citizens wishing to participate in cultural, educational, or professional exchanges.
Islam is the third largest religion in the United States after Christianity and Judaism. According to a study, it is followed by % of the population, compared with % who follow Christianity, % unaffiliated, % Judaism, % Buddhism, and % Hinduism. The history of Chinese Americans or the history of ethnic Chinese in the United States relates to the three major waves of Chinese immigration to the United States with the first beginning in the 19th century.