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Rice output in India hit a new record at Indian farmers, thus produced about 71 kilograms of wheat and 80 kilograms of rice for every member of Indian population in The per capita supply of rice every year in India is now higher than the per capita consumption of rice every year in Japan.
India exported around 2 million metric tonnes of wheat and 2. Between andthe Indian fish capture harvest doubled, while aquaculture harvest tripled.
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April Main article: History of agriculture in India Vedic literature provides some of the earliest written record of agriculture in India.
Rigveda hymns, for example, describes plowing, fallowing, irrigation, fruit and vegetable cultivation. Other historical evidence suggests rice and cotton were cultivated in the Indus Valleyand plowing patterns from the Bronze Age have been excavated at Kalibangan in Rajasthan.
Some archaeologists believe that rice was a domesticated crop along the banks of the river Ganges in the sixth millennium BC. So were species of winter cereals barley, oats, and wheat and legumes lentil and chickpea grown in northwest India before the sixth millennium BC.
Indians might have domesticated buffalo the river type years ago[ citation needed ]. According to some scientists agriculture was widespread in the Indian peninsula, — years ago, well beyond the fertile plains of the north.
It was in India, between the sixth and four BC, that the Persians, followed by the Greeksdiscovered the famous "reeds that produce honey without bees" being grown. On their return journey, the Macedonian soldiers carried the "honey bearing reeds," thus spreading sugar and sugarcane agriculture.
A few merchants began to trade in sugar — a luxury and an expensive spice in Europe until the 18th century. Sugar became widely popular in 18th-century Europe, then graduated to become a human necessity in the 19th century all over the world.
This evolution of taste and demand for sugar as an essential food ingredient unleashed major economic and social changes. Sugarcane does not grow in cold, frost-prone climate; therefore, tropical and semitropical colonies were sought.
Sugarcane plantations, just like cotton farms, became a major driver of large and forced human migrations in 19th century and early 20th century — of people from Africa and from India, both in millions — influencing the ethnic mix, political conflicts and cultural evolution of Caribbean, South American, Indian Ocean and Pacific Island nations.
This is a cash crop in central India. In the years since its independence, India has made immense progress towards food security. Indian population has tripled, and food-grain production more than quadrupled. There has been a substantial increase in available food-grain per capita.
However, two years of severe drought in and convinced India to reform its agricultural policy and that they could not rely on foreign aid and imports for food security.
India adopted significant policy reforms focused on the goal of foodgrain self-sufficiency. It began with the decision to adopt superior yielding, disease resistant wheat varieties in combination with better farming knowledge to improve productivity.
A hectare of Indian wheat farm that produced an average of 0.
Such rapid growth in farm productivity enabled India to become self-sufficient by the s. It also empowered the smallholder farmers to seek further means to increase food staples produced per hectare.
ByIndian farms were adopting wheat varieties capable of yielding 6 tonnes of wheat per hectare. However, since irrigation infrastructure was very poor, Indian farmers innovated with tube-wells, to harvest ground water. When gains from the new technology reached their limits in the states of initial adoption, the technology spread in the s and s to the states of eastern India — BiharOdisha and West Bengal.
The lasting benefits of the improved seeds and new technology extended principally to the irrigated areas which account for about one-third of the harvested crop area. In the s, Indian agriculture policy shifted to "evolution of a production pattern in line with the demand pattern" leading to a shift in emphasis to other agricultural commodities like oilseed, fruit and vegetables.
Farmers began adopting improved methods and technologies in dairying, fisheries and livestock, and meeting the diversified food needs of a growing population. As with rice, the lasting benefits of improved seeds and improved farming technologies now largely depends on whether India develops infrastructure such as irrigation network, flood control systems, reliable electricity production capacity, all-season rural and urban highways, cold storage to prevent spoilage, modern retail, and competitive buyers of produce from Indian farmers.
This is increasingly the focus of Indian agriculture policy. India ranks 74 out of major countries in terms of food security index. This is largely because of the rapid economic growth in services, industrial output, and non-agricultural sectors in India between and International Journal of Rural Studies (IJRS) vol.
18 no. 2 Oct Scarcity of water is a major problem faced by the farmers. India is home to 16% of the world’s population and it is endowed with only 4% of . attheheels.com: Major Problems in California History (): Sucheng Chan, Spencer Olin: Books. Agriculture is the cultivation of land and breeding of animals and plants to provide food, fiber, medicinal plants and other products to sustain and enhance life.
Agriculture was the key development in the rise of sedentary human civilization, whereby farming of domesticated species created food surpluses that enabled people to live in cities. The study of agriculture is known as agricultural.
Jun 22, · The difficulty of debating the subject of genetically modified (GM) foods is they are so new that we don’t really know how they affect the human body--they.
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